Theoretical Framework for Back-Translation

Back-translation is a validation tool widely used in international research settings, including, but not limited to, cross-cultural psychology, international marketing, educational assessments, quality of life research, and international nursing research. As a rule, researchers use back-translation to validate the quality of translated research instruments, such as tests and questionnaires

The method consists in re-translating the translated text back into the source language. The back-translation and the original document are compared for inconsistencies, and if none are found, the translation is considered equivalent.

Thomas Hunter, translation specialist,

The method has many adherents and opponents; however, neither uses solid linguistic evidence in their arguments. This study is an attempt to suggest a theoretical linguistic framework for describing and evaluating the back-translation process, namely the cognitive linguistics approach, with the main focus on Langacker‟s Cognitive Grammar. The study is illustrated with examples from actual questionnaires translated from English into Ukrainian

Cross-cultural social research is understood here as a generic term that covers such diverse fields as anthropology, cross-cultural psychology, international marketing research, quality of life research, etc. All these areas use specific research instruments, usually in the form of questionnaires, that are used basically as measurement tools.


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  3. Hunt Merchent says:

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    1. Hunt Merchent says:

      There are several FMS platforms and tools available in the market and most fleet management software providers naturally will advertise their product as the ideal ones for your business. However, nobody knows better than you on what works best for your company.

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